1 Development History
The extruder originated in the 18th century. The manual piston extruder for seamless lead pipes manufactured by Joseph Bramah in England in 1975 was considered to be the world's extruder. Since then, in the first 50 years of the 19th century, extruders were basically used only in the production of lead pipes, the processing of macaroni and other foods, the brick-making and ceramics industries.
During the development of the extruder as a manufacturing method, the first clear record was R. B rooman applied for the production of Goodyear rubber wire with an extruder in 1845. H. Goodwave Bewlgy subsequently improved the extruder and used it to cover the copper wire of the first submarine cable between D over and Calais in 1851. In the next 25 years, the extrusion method 13 became more important, and the electric-operated extruder gradually replaced the conventional manual extruder. The early mechanically operated plunger-type extruder produced thousands of kilometers of insulated wires and cables, thus firmly establishing the position of the extrusion method for the production of cables. Early cable extruders, whether manual, mechanical or hydraulic, were plunger-type. In this production process, the plunger presses the hot Gutapo glue into the die with the copper wire passing through it, and the Gutapo glue is extruded from the die to cover the copper wire to form an insulating layer.
The rubber extruder that appeared in 1870 was a hot-feed extruder. The rubber material fed by it must be hot-melted, and the material supply is uniform, stable, and constant speed, and the material temperature is maintained at 50 ~ 70 ° C. The screw is short, the thread groove is deep, and the homogenization effect is not ideal. From the 1970s. At one time, the aspect ratio became smaller. Since the hot-feed extruder can be continuously extruded, the operation is simple, the production efficiency is high, and the shape of the extruded product is stable, in many products, the hot-feed extruder is still used. It is used for the extrusion of various treads and various types of rubber in the production of tires, and for the extrusion of rubber and rubber blanks in the production of hoses, cables and other rubber products.
The cold-feed extruder appeared in the 1940s, began to be popularized and popularized in the 1960s, and became the mainstream of development in the 1980s. By the early 1990's, the products produced by the cold-feed extruder in developed countries such as Europe and the United States had accounted for 95% of the total production. Separate screw extruder, baffle screw extruder, cavity screw extruder, transfer mixing extruder, pin screw extruder, and multi-channel transfer mixing screw (MC T) extruder Wait. From the perspective of equipment structure, compared with hot-feed extruder, cold-feed extruder generally has a longer body, with an aspect ratio (L / D) of 8 to 20, and the thread groove is shallow. Due to the long body, multiple functions, and low feed temperature, its power is much greater than that of a hot-feed extruder, which is about 2 to 4 times that of a hot-feed extruder of the same specification. For example, the cold-feed extruder with a diameter of 250 ram produced by the German company Berstorff has a power of 500 kw, while the hot-feed extruder with the same specification only has 105 kw, but the production capacity It is lower than hot-feed extruder. The emergence of cold-feed extruder simplifies the production process, and the fed rubber material no longer needs to be hot-melted. The rubber material is fed into the extruder at room temperature to obtain the product blank of various shapes. It can completely replace the hot-feeding extruder, and can eliminate the rubber hot-melting process, simplify the production process, and allow the head to establish a higher pressure, which has a certain effect on improving the quality of the extruded products. It has been widely used in the production of products. However, the screw of the main and sub-thread structure designed to obtain a good plasticizing effect on the rubber compound affects the extrusion output, and requires a larger driving power, which is limited in some production processes. 1.1.4 Main and auxiliary thread cold feeding extruder The main and auxiliary thread cold feeding extruder appeared in 1970. Its main thread is the same as that of a common screw. The main structure is set in the main thread groove. The secondary thread has a certain height difference, and the secondary thread has a change in the pitch and the height of the thread. It only allows the rubber to be conveyed forward through the narrow slot, thereby effectively eliminating the "dead" of the rubber in the common screw groove. Area". The effect of plasticizing and mixing is strengthened, but the mixing quality of the compound is not uniform and the energy consumed is large.
The emergence of cold-feed exhaust extruders originated from the design of the vacuum extruder screw proposed by Bernhatdt in 1956. The screw used by it can be divided into ordinary cold row screw and strong shear cold row screw according to the flow state in the narrow groove of the rubber compound. The screw of the cold feed exhaust extruder is divided into a feeding section, a compression section, a throttling section, an exhaust section and an extrusion section. The throttling section adopts shallow grooves and equidistant equal depth threads, which can achieve higher shear and stable conveying of the rubber material, and also improve the exhaust effect. In a cold-feed screw extruder, a rubber strip at room temperature is added to the extruder. Rubber extruders are also often classified by whether they are used for exhaust.
In the continuous exploration of extrusion technology, that is, the research of pin technology began in the late 1960s and early 1990s. Pins were inserted radially into the screw grooves of the screw from the circumference of the barrel, and the flowing rubber Shear and stir. The rubber material turns into a melt and flows in the screw thread at a low shear rate, and gradually forms a continuous viscous fluid. This will destroy the laminar flow and agglomeration of the rubber material during the extrusion process, breaking the rubber piece, and achieving Good plasticization, low glue temperature and energy-saving effects simplify the production process. The technology was acquired in the United States in 1979. With the advent of pin-type cold-feed extruder, the technology of cold-feed extruder has been greatly developed and improved. This extruder has not only made great improvements in the screw structure, but also because of the increase of pins on the barrel, it makes the plasticization performance of the rubber, the compactness of the extruded product, and the amount of extrusion great. It can improve the extrusion temperature and lower the discharging temperature, which can meet the extrusion requirements of various production processes. At the same time, due to the improved screw structure, the driving power is reduced, and the unit energy consumption is significantly reduced. Because of its characteristics of good plasticizing performance, low debinding temperature, and large extrusion volume, it has been used more and more widely in the rubber industry.
In the rubber industry, compound extruders are mainly used for the extrusion of compound tire treads, car seal strips, colored tire treads, hose compound and plastic-plastic compound extrusion, and multilayer co-extrusion of rubber sheets. The compound extrusion production process is an advanced technology in the rubber industry. It can use different compounds with different formulas and properties according to the different performance requirements of the product. The compound extrusion equipment can produce materials that can save materials and meet a variety of properties. Demand for the product.
Since the 1950s, some rubber machinery manufacturers in China have developed hot-feed extruders, which are widely used in tires, hoses, plastics and other industries. The development of pin cold feed extrusion technology in China began in 1984 and has more than 20 years of history. After continuously improving and perfecting the screw structure, screw parameters, pin configuration and quantity, temperature control and feeding methods, the technology has finally been recognized internationally. Pin-type cold feed extruder has become the leading product in the extruder market.
Because in the production of bias tires and radial tires, the production of treads, sidewalls, and apex components is mostly based on compound extrusion technology, so two-, three-, or four-compound pin-type cold-feeding at home and abroad The material extruder came into being. China's compound extrusion technology has become increasingly mature. The design and manufacturing level of compound extruders has reached the international advanced level. Not only can it provide compound extruders in various combinations, it can also be exported to foreign tire companies. Guilin Rubber Industry New Technology Development Industrial Corporation is a domestic company that can design and manufacture four-composite pin cold-feed extruder, and is one of the few international companies that can design and manufacture four-composite pin cold-feed extruder The company developed the P 9 0 / ① 12 O / Medium 2 o 0 / l 5 O four-composite pin-type cold-feed extruder developed by Michelin of France, which has been well received by users.
2 Development Status
There are about 22 major foreign rubber extruder manufacturers, mainly including Troster, Berstov, Krupp, A-Z (V MI), Japan's Nakata Engineering, and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. , Kobe Machinery, Kobe Steel, Jinzhong Machinery, American Farrell, Davis Standard, Italian Pomini, Swiss RCM, Imterplasti-ca, British Iddor Brother and other companies. The German Trester Machinery Manufacturing Plant was founded in 1892. It is mainly dedicated to the development, production and manufacturing of tires, cables, sealing tapes and conveyor belts. The company's spiral rubber extruder (GS) is used by major rubber processing plants in Europe and other countries. For nearly a century, its rubber extruder output and production quality have been recognized as industry standards. In the middle of the 1970s, Trester played a role in boosting the development of the QSM (transverse flow stirring) process and developed the QSM pin-type cold-feed extruder. Since then, this evolving process has allowed tire manufacturers and other rubber product processors to process a wide range of rubber compounds with good plasticizing effects without the need to replace the screw. it is good. Because the QSM pin type cold feed extruder is suitable for all compounds. So it has been quickly promoted to various industries in the rubber industry.
Berstov Rubber & Plastic Machinery Company, Germany, founded 100 years ago, is a member company of Mannesmann Plastic Machinery Group. As a leader in rubber and plastic equipment suppliers, today Berstorff has become one of the manufacturers of extrusion systems for the production and processing of plastics and rubber worldwide. In 1954 Bellstorf established its technical center, developed and manufactured its twin-screw extruder in 1966, and merged into the Mannesmann Plastics Machinery Group in 1998. It provides extruder and extrusion systems, compound extrusion systems, roll head extrusion systems and calender production lines for the tire manufacturing industry. Its two-composite, triple-composite and quad-composite extrusion systems produce components including tread, side bead, and apex. The company's ZEB asic series of twin-screw extruders is highly cost-effective due to the highly standardized components. The new ZEB asic model is especially suitable for general purpose compound modification. With the launch of the new ZEB asic model, Bellstorf has completed a full range of twin-screw extruders, including the ultra-high-performance ZUETX and ZEUT twin-screw extruders. The ZEB asic twin screw extruder will be rolled out globally.
In 2004, the Dutch rubber machinery manufacturer V MI bought out the extruder division of the German A-Z model and machinery manufacturing company, thereby expanding the product range. This event expanded V MI's product range in the tire building and rubber industries. A-z extrusion products include: multi-compound, triple-compound and quad-compound extruders, with extrusion capacity from 60 kg / 60 r am per hour to 78 0 0 ks / 25 0 r am per hour.
In general, cold-feed rubber extruders have become the mainstream of developed countries in Europe and the United States. By the early 1990s, cold-feed extruders in developed countries such as Europe and the United States had accounted for 95% of total production. Developed countries in Europe and the United States are developing and producing MT CD and other high-speed, precise new extrusion equipment.
The annual output of rubber extruders in China is nearly 800, and there are about 50 manufacturers, mainly distributed in Qingdao, Guilin, Inner Mongolia, Shanghai and other places. Although there are many rubber screw extruder manufacturers in China. But there are only 4-5 companies with development and design capabilities and considerable influence in the industry. In the mid-1980s, China began to contact and use the triple compound extrusion technology and double compound extrusion technology of Bet-storff and Troester. A company in Inner Mongolia conducted technical exchanges with a number of foreign companies. Based on absorbing foreign advanced technology, it developed and produced a variety of pin-type cold-feeding compound extruders, which made the compound extrusion equipment domestic. This technology has reached a relatively mature level. in recent years. The company provided * 2 0/2/5 double compound pin cold feeding extruder for Beijing Tire Factory and Hefei Jiatong Tire Company. 1 2 0/1 5 0/1 2 0 triple compound pin type cold feed extruder, and also provided Vietnam and Taiwan-funded tire factories with multiple pin type cold feed compound extruder with different specifications.
In the production of sealing rubber strips, the three-composite head and the four-composite head have also developed rapidly. Most of the compound heads of sealing strip production lines introduced earlier in China are equipped with shear heads. The structure of the heads is relatively complex. After years of development, the three-composite and four-composite heads used are quite simple and have good results. Then use the cutting head. With the development of localized compound extrusion equipment, compound extrusion technology and production process will develop rapidly. Inner Mongolia Fute Rubber & Plastic Machinery Co., Ltd. designed and produced a pin-type cold-feed extruder equipped with an “L” -type roller head, which has been covered with film on the conveyor belt production process and radial tire inner liner film production. Get applied. Its major features are the combination of the many advantages of the calender and the extruder, the good air tightness of the extruded film, simplified production processes, reduced production equipment, reduced a large amount of energy consumption, and improved product quality.
According to reports, some domestic compound extrusion equipment can completely replace imported equipment. The 1500 cold / ~ 250 hot double compound extrusion unit developed by Guilin Rubber Industry New Technology Development Industrial Corporation has adopted a new structure screw, which greatly improves the rubber conveying capacity and the extrusion capacity reaches 4 2 0 kg / h; Extrude the tread speed of the specifications below 1.100 between 16-2 m / rain, which is about 1 times more than most similar imported equipment specifications. The ~ 120 / Medium 200 / Medium 250 cold-feed triple compound extrusion unit developed by it has become the first triple compound extrusion equipment for all-steel tire production in China. China Chemical Industry Guilin Engineering Company has also successfully developed a four-composite extrusion unit, which has reached and approached advanced foreign standards, and has been used for the sidewall extrusion of radial tires produced by Michelin. The unit is worth ten million yuan and is a production line specialized in the production of various radial tires. This set of equipment is a huge one hundred meters long, only one head of the extrusion unit weighs 23 tons, and only a few manufacturers worldwide can provide similar products. The localization of advanced equipment is conducive to the promotion of new equipment and technologies, improving the level of enterprise equipment, and promoting the development of production, especially due to the rapid development of radial tire production in China and the advantages of pin-type cold-feed extruder. The popularization and application of cold-feed extruder has greater advantages, becoming a replacement product of hot-feed extruder and ordinary cold-feed extruder, providing a broad development and application prospect for pin-type cold-feed extruder .
Developed countries such as Europe and the United States are mainly based on cold-feed extruder, and MC T extruder has entered the promotion stage. By the end of the 1990s. Hundreds of MC T extruders have been put into use around the world, and more than 100 in North America alone are used for hot and cold turning of tires. According to reports, the current advanced rubber extruder is a three-composite extruder composed of MC TD-90, MCTD-150, and MC TD-2000 designed by the German company A-z, which is characterized by small volume , 20% energy saving, used in North America for tire turning operations. Although MC T and MC TD extrusion technology introduced many advantages in the developer's publicity, not all MC T extruders were successful. The MC T 9 5/50/50 triple compound equipment was introduced in China, which was planned to be used for the extrusion of tire treads, but it failed due to uneven plasticization. According to the German company Troester, this design was unsuccessful.
With the emergence and wide application of cold-feed extruder, the application range of hot-feed extruder is gradually shrinking. The rubber extruder has developed from hot feeding to cold feeding. Cold feeding pin extruder has become the mainstream of development. Pin-type extruders have been widely used in China's rubber industry, involving tire treads, radial tire sidewalls, bead rubber, various rubber hoses and inner liner films. The machine used is both imported and domestically produced. The screw diameter is 85 to 250 mm, and the length-to-diameter ratio is 12 to 16. Pin-type cold-feed extruder has many advantages over hot-feed extruder and ordinary cold-feed extruder. In the past ten years, it has been widely used in the production of rubber industry in China, and its use has been continuously expanded. The pin-type cold feed extruder introduced earlier in China is mainly used for the production of rubber core and rubber in the production of radial tire tread rubber and hose production. Most of the tire treads of semi-steel and all-steel radial tires are produced by pin cold-feed extruders. In the production process of bias tires and other rubber products, many manufacturers have adopted pin-type cold-feed extruders. In the rubber industry, the traditional production process is an extruder as a molding extrusion process equipment. The pin-type cold feed extruder has been widely used for calendering of steel wires and fiber cords due to its large extrusion volume and good plasticizing effect. Machine and air tight film calender. In recent years, pin-type cold-feed extruder has also been popularized as filter glue, and has been well received by users.
Pin-type cold-feed in-composite extruders have also been widely used in the production of radial tires, and have become the key equipment for radial tire production. The improvement and renewal of the process, as well as the development of the market economy, the old production process and equipment will be eliminated. The inner compound extruder is the inevitable development direction of the compound production process.
However, in China's rubber industry production enterprises, hot-feed extruder still accounts for a large proportion. According to incomplete statistics, the hot-feed extrusion process using open mills to supply rubber accounts for about 70% in China. Many old rubber manufacturers in China use extrusion equipment, processes and equipment from the 1950s. behind. Some companies believe that the old extrusion equipment has certain advantages, such as good dispersibility, good operability, and skilled operators. However, the advantages of the pin-type cold-feed extruder are greater than the hot-feed extrusion. Out of the plane. Pin-type cold-feed extruder represents rubber
The development direction of the extruder has great development potential. It can be seen that there is still much room for the technological transformation of the extrusion process in China's rubber production enterprises to further promote the use of pin-type cold-feed extruder.
3 development trends
The meshing area of the screw elements of the screw extruder has a large speed gradient, so it is beneficial to the full mixing of the materials in the meshing area. The number of meshing zones of the twin screw, "one" three-screw, triangular three-screw and four-screw extruders are 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. As the number of meshing zones increases, the mixing ability of the materials is gradually increased. . The triangular three-screw and four-screw extruders have a special structure-the center zone. The material in the central area forms a circulation. The existence of the circulation promotes the mixing of the materials in the central area and increases the mixing time of the materials in the central area. After analysis, the material will not stay in the central area. The flow rate, return flow rate, backflow coefficient, and average shear rate of the twin screw, “one” three-screw, triangular three-screw, and four-screw extruders gradually increased in order. Multi-screw extruder is more suitable for polymer processing because it has better production capacity in terms of transportation capacity and material mixing capacity.
The MC T extruder is divided into a feed section, a transfer mixing section and a discharge section along the screw axis. In the transfer mixing section, the screw and the inner wall of the barrel have opposite spiral threads. The number of flow channels on the screw increases and the depth of the threads decreases. After the extreme value is reached in the middle of the mixing transfer area, it gradually returns to its original state. During the increase of screw flow channels, The number of channels on the inner wall of the barrel is opposite to the number of channels on the screw, and the depth of the channels is also opposite to the screw.
MC T extruder is very different from ordinary cold-feed screw extruder. Ordinary screw extruder uses friction to plasticize, while MC T extruder rubber plasticization depends on mechanical action. The friction force is very small, so the screw length of the MC T extruder is much shorter than that of the ordinary extruder, which is only about 7 times the screw diameter.
The MC T extruder can be used not only for the production of compounded rubber and semi-finished products such as truck tire tread rubber that can be easily extruded, but also for the production of materials with high synthetic rubber components that are difficult to extrude, and the surface quality and outer contour edges The corner shape is good. The screw of the MCT extruder is shorter than that of a common extruder, and it is easy to combine two or three MC T extruders together to achieve "compositing" of complex products and co-extrusion. For example, a "three-compound" extruder can be composed of one 95 mm main MC T extruder and two 50 mm auxiliary MC T extruder. Because the plasticizing mixing area of the MC T extruder is short (about 2.5 D), there are no obstacles and interference elements in the flow channel. The screw fins and the flow channel can help the material. The temperature rise of the material in the machine is low, which makes the screw speed. High, large production capacity. Generally, MC T extruder is equipped with temperature adjustment ports in the screw, head, bearing and feeding area. Under the same temperature rise, the production capacity of MC T extruder is greater than that of pin barrel extruder. , Bigger than smooth barrel extruder.
At the end of the 1990s, hundreds of MC T extruders had been put into use around the world. In North America alone, more than 100 were used for the hot and cold turning of tires, and they were used in conjunction with CTC—SBI and CTC— With the combination of S BⅡ extruder / forming machine, MC T is directly extruded onto the carcass, which not only improves the quality, but also saves manpower and material resources. The MC T with a size of 24 mm has undergone industrial experiments, and the German Institute of Rubber Technology has been exploring the use of ultrasound to reduce the viscosity of elastomers in the late 1990s, in order to solve the problem that the MC T extruder is used for ordinary industrial rubber. Deficiencies in extrusion quality, output and energy saving. Major rubber extruder manufacturers in Europe and the United States will develop MC T extruder as a new direction. In recent years, the development of improved MC T extruder has been the focus. The third-generation MCT extruder MC TD and pin-type MC T extruder may be the direction of future development, especially the pin-type MCT extruder combines the advantages of pin screw extruder and MC T extruder, and has broad advantages. Market prospects and development space.
The extruder head is a key component that determines the final quality of the extruded product. The traditional single-screw extruder can only be used to extrude products of a single variety of rubber. The structure of the head is relatively simple and the pressure of the head is relatively low, so the technical problems are easy to handle. With the development of the extrusion process and the needs of production, the structure and technology of the extrusion head have been greatly developed compared with more than ten years ago, especially in the production of tires that require the use of different properties of rubber in the head. Inner compound extrusion tread, sidewall and apex, etc. For this purpose, from the 1960s, the German company Troester and Berstorff developed the double compound extruder head for extruding two rubber compounds. By the 1980s and 1990s, triple compound and quad compound extruders had been developed, and five compound extruders were being developed. Products will be available soon.
With the increase of the extruder performance requirements and the advancement of driving technology in the extrusion process, many changes have occurred in the drive system of the extruder. The traditional AC motor constant speed drive, commutator motor variable speed drive and AC motor gearbox have stepped Variable speed drives have been eliminated in modern extruders at home and abroad, and are replaced by stepless variable speed drives with DC motors. DC motors have good torque performance at low speeds and a wide speed range. Domestic DC motors have reached the international level with the support of Siemens technology, and have been widely used in various cold-feed extruder.
The Hagglunds D rivers AB company in Sweden began to produce high-power hydraulic motors more than thirty years ago. It has been used in drive systems for high-power equipment such as open mills, internal mixers, twin-screw extrusion tableting machines, and calenders. It is also used in the drive system of rubber screw extruder. Due to the relative lag in the development of hydraulic technology in China, there is no high-torque hydraulic motor, and the import package is expensive, so this drive technology has not been used on domestic screw extruders.
Extruders in developed countries have generally adopted modern electronic and computer-controlled technologies. Process parameters such as melt pressure and temperature, body temperature of each section, main screw and feeding screw speeds, feeding amount, etc. Parameters such as the ratio of the raw materials, the current and voltage of the motor are detected online, and closed-loop control by microcomputer is used. Some companies have adopted online remote monitoring, diagnosis and control to carry out network control on extrusion molding production lines. This is extremely beneficial for ensuring the stability of process conditions and improving the accuracy of the product.
With the compounding of the extruder, its mechanical properties will inevitably become more complicated, and the matching control system will also be complicated, and the control accuracy will be higher. Therefore, how to design a proper control system to ensure its economic, safe and reliable operation, and not to become a phase-out or transition product in a short time, is a problem that our engineering designers must consider. In the control of the multi-composite extruder, the bus technology and network structure are simple, and the technical performance is stable, which not only greatly reduces the amount of wiring, facilitates installation, debugging and maintenance, but also greatly enhances the flexibility and reliability of the system. At the same time, it has also achieved good socio-economic benefits.
The development of a new type of screw extruder, a precision extruder with small shrinkage deformation, high dimensional accuracy and fast extrusion speed, and the continuous maturation of co-extrusion technology. In recent years, the rapid development of the rubber industry has driven the rapid development of China's rubber extrusion technology. Promotion. Among them, radial tire compound coextrusion technology can be described as a typical representative of the level of rubber extrusion technology.
Extrusion molding is a continuous, low-cost, and wide-ranging processing molding method, but people mistakenly believe that extrusion molding is a low-precision, low-value-added molding processing method. With the market of various high-precision products, such as optical fiber, medical catheters, audio and video film bases, photographic film bases, and transparencies, the market demand for a series of high-precision products is increasing day by day. Requirements are also increasing. For some special processing and molding, such as the processing of some dangerous and toxic materials, the reaction extrusion process, and other process parameters such as temperature, pressure, material residence time and distribution, and the heat transfer between the reaction material and the outside, etc. Ordinary extruders are often incompetent. Precision extrusion molding machines provide necessary equipment conditions for various complex reactive extrusion processes. Compared with the world advanced level, domestic manufacturers still have a large gap in high-speed and precision equipment. Experts believe that there is a gap of 15-20 years between the high-level extrusion equipment and the advanced foreign level in terms of actual level and processing level. There are also large gaps in real-time process parameter and product parameter monitoring and the use of advanced control technologies. Advanced high-precision online testing instruments mainly rely on imports, few domestic products, and the gap with foreign products is more than 10 years. On the whole, China's precision extrusion molding equipment is still in its infancy and has great room for development.
Modular and professional design of the extruder
"Modular" production can adapt to the special requirements of different users, shorten the research and development cycle of new products, and strive for a larger market share; while "professional" production can arrange the production of various system module components of extrusion molding equipment for fixed-point production or even globally Purchasing, which is very beneficial to ensure the quality of the whole machine, reduce costs, and accelerate capital turnover.
Since the advent of pin-type cold-feed extrusion technology, extruder manufacturers at home and abroad continue to explore new extrusion technologies. But so far, whether it is MC TD and gear pump extrusion technology, or other extrusion technologies, although they have certain advantages, they are not dominant in terms of increasing output, reducing glue temperature and reducing energy consumption. On the contrary, due to the structure It is complicated, difficult to maintain and difficult to be accepted by users, so it does not have scale advantage in actual use. In the field of future extrusion technology, pin-type cold-feed extrusion technology will still dominate. At the same time, China's compound extrusion technology is becoming more and more perfect, which can fully meet the various needs of different users.
 Translated by He Min. New development of tire component extrusion technology. Modern Rubber Technology [J], 2000, 2 8 (4): 4 8— 51.
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5 rubber machinery
It is a machinery used to manufacture various rubber products such as tires, including general rubber machinery, tire machinery and other rubber product machinery.
General rubber machinery is a machine for preparing rubber or semi-finished products, including raw material processing machinery, rubber mills, extruders, calenders, curtain canvas pretreatment devices and cutting machines.
The rubber mixer is divided into two types: open and closed. The open rubber mill is mainly used for hot smelting, tabletting, breaking, plasticizing and mixing of rubber. The open rubber mill has been used for production since 1826. Its structure is relatively simple and it is still widely used in modern times. ; Closed rubber mixer is mainly used for plasticizing and mixing of rubber. It has one more mixing chamber than open rubber mixer. Since the invention of the elliptical rotor closed rubber mixer in 1916, the closed rubber mixer has developed rapidly in the rubber industry. Later, other types of closed rubber mixers appeared. Modern closed rubber mixers have a mixing cycle of 2.5 to 3 minutes, and the large capacity of the mixing chamber is 650 liters.
Extruder is a rubber machine used to extrude treads, inner tubes, hoses and various rubber profiles. It is also used to cover cable and wire products. Common is the screw extruder. When it is working, the rubber compound is stirred, mixed, plasticized and compacted in the barrel by the rotation of the extrusion screw, and then moved toward the head, and then extruded from the mouth. Shaped products.
The calender is mainly used for the laminating or wiping of curtain canvas, laminating, laminating and embossing. The calender was made in 1857 and used for production, and has been continuously improved since then. Especially since the 1950s, the development of the plastics industry has strongly promoted the improvement of high-precision, high-speed calenders.
Tire machinery includes tire building machines, tire traveller machines, tire shaping vulcanizers, capsule vulcanizers, belt vulcanizers, tube joint machines and tube vulcanizers, as well as tire car tire machines, tire repair machines and recycled rubber production machines. More than 60% of the world's rubber is used to make tires, so tire machinery plays an important role in rubber machinery.
The tire building machine is mainly used for laminating tire cords, travellers, treads, and other parts into tire tires. According to different purposes, it can be divided into two categories: ordinary tire building machines and radial tire building machines. A tire forming machine that completes the entire process of radial tire building is called the primary molding method; the tire body is made by a modified ordinary tire building machine, and then molded on the radial tire building machine is called the two-stage molding method.
Tire shaping vulcanizing machine is a machine for curing tires of pneumatic tires such as automobiles, engineering vehicles, tractors, and airplanes. This machine appeared in the 1940s. The setting vulcanizing machine can complete the tire loading, shaping, vulcanization, tire unloading, and post-inflation cooling operations. The temperature, pressure, and steam chamber temperature of the capsule can be measured, recorded, and controlled. The entire production process can be automated get on.
Other rubber products machinery is used to make tape, hose, rubber shoes, model products, glue and latex products.
In 1995, Japan's Kobe Steel and other companies have come to China to settle in, and have carried out various forms of cooperation in production and technology, capital and marketing. Most of these companies have developed rapidly and achieved proud performance.
China is a major producer of rubber machinery in the world and a fast-developing region in the world. It is becoming the center of rubber machinery in the world.
Reference editing area