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Detergent solvents are a large category with many types, including inorganic cleaning and organic cleaning. The difference between organic cleaning agents and inorganic cleaning agents is simply that organic detergents are cleaning agents made of carbon-containing compounds, and inorganic detergents are cleaning agents made of carbon-free compounds, so they are inorganic. There are many ways to classify cleaning agents, which vary from country to country. We usually divide them into three categories: aqueous, semi-aqueous and non-aqueous cleaning agents.


1 basic definition

Cleaning agent (water system)

It is formulated with surfactants (such as sodium alkylbenzene sulfonate, sodium fatty alcohol sodium sulfate), various auxiliary agents (such as sodium tripolyphosphate), and auxiliary agents. It can reduce the Substance with surface tension to improve decontamination effect. According to the appearance of the product, it is divided into solid detergent and liquid detergent. The solid detergent has a large output, which is customarily called washing powder, including fine powder, granular and hollow granules. There is also a paste detergent in between, also called laundry cream. Various types of synthetic detergents have different production processes, among which solid detergents are complex. Countries around the world generally produce hollow granular solid detergents and use high-tower spray drying methods. The main processes are slurry preparation, spray drying, air aging and packaging. Liquid detergents are easy to manufacture, just send surfactants, auxiliaries and other additives, as well as treated water, to the mixer for mixing. New cleaning agents (2 photos)

Cleaning agent (semi-aqueous)

A new type of cleaning agent product composed of fine granular weakly alkaline adsorbent and various auxiliaries. It uses natural interface active abrasive grains as raw materials, combined with multiple detergent active agents and bactericides, polishing agents, imported penetrants and unique bright Factors and other environmental protection technologies are formulated with high technology, which is a multifunctional and comprehensive environmental protection cleaning and care product. It is a modern new type of decontamination product with unique decontamination effect and wide use without any side effects on human skin. The active abrasive grains help with the unique cleaning agent contained in the abrasive grains. When combined with light Microsoft friction, it can quickly and thoroughly remove all kinds of serious stubborn dirt pollution. Grey scale, heavy oil scale, cement scale, grout scale, metal scratch, rust scale, adhesive, tea stain, drink stain, rubber hammer mark, leather shoe scratch, stubborn wax stain, aluminum mark, wood mark, square Dirt such as grid marks, watermarks, shoe marks, ink marks, etc. are environmentally friendly, do not damage the brick surface, and do not hurt your hands.

Cleaning agent (non-aqueous)

It consists of hydrocarbon solvents, halogenated hydrocarbon solvents, alcohol solvents, ether solvents, ketone solvents, ester solvents, phenol solvents, and mixed solvents.

2 basic classification

Cleaning agents can be divided into industrial cleaning agents and civilian cleaning agents according to their uses.

Industrial cleaning agents include oil-removing cleaning agents, wax-removing cleaning agents, liquid crystal cleaning agents, cold stripping (room temperature cleaning), rust-removing cleaning agents, aluminates and other varieties.

Civil cleaning agents include washing powder, hand sanitizer, soap, dishwashing liquid, and detergent [1].

Cleaning agents can be divided into water-based cleaning agents and organic solvent cleaning agents according to the different solvents.

Water-based cleaning agents are water-based solvents, such as degreasing cleaning agents, detergents, detergents, etc.

Organic solvent cleaning solvents are organic solvents, such as trichloroethylene, acetone (nail water), Tianna water, boiled water, white electric oil and so on.

⑴Water system

Water is an important cleaning agent and has the role and status of any other cleaning agent. Ordinary water is easily obtained from nature, and water has a strong dissolving and dispersing power. However, the surface tension of water is large, and surfactants need to be added in use to reduce surface tension and increase surface wetting. In general industrial cleaning, the combination of acid, alkali and water is more common. Some metals are washed with rust inhibitors; in precision and ultra-precision industrial cleaning. Most require water to be made pure. Water purity is usually measured in terms of resistivity. The semiconductor industry requires more than 18MΩ · cm. The production of TN-type liquid crystal is 10MΩ / cm, and some industries have strict requirements on bacterial content.

In recent years, severe water shortages in parts of China have challenged water for cleaning. Some cities have forbidden to wash cars with ordinary water, and can only use recycled water or water-saving equipment that atomizes water. In precision industrial cleaning, the preparation of pure water is expensive. Water washing must be heated and dried, adding a lot of rinsing stations. The energy consumption is large, and the running cost is usually higher than that of solvent washing. In addition, a large amount of wastewater containing chemical active agents and dirt in the past was directly discharged without treatment. Some also carry heavy metals that are very toxic, which have seriously polluted the environment, and sewage treatment facilities must be increased.

Cleaning agent

Semi-aqueous cleaning agent is also called quasi-water cleaning agent, which is composed of high boiling point solvents and active agents such as alcohols. Glycol esters, organic hydrocarbons, N-methylpyrrolidone, etc. It usually contains 5% to 20% of water and is generally not easy to burn.

But when warming and cleaning. Improper control of water content. May cause burning. There are some differences between semi-aqueous cleaning and solvent cleaning. Its cleaning principle is peeling off. Instead of dissolving. In order to prevent the oil that has been peeled off from being reattached to the object to be cleaned, the cleaning liquid should be continuously circulated, and an oil-water separator should be added. Semi-water washing usually has a good cleaning effect, but the running cost is high. Waste liquid cannot be recycled and reused. It contains high COD (chemical oxygen consumption) and requires wastewater treatment.

⑶ Non-aqueous

Non-aqueous cleaning agents refer to organic solvents that are insoluble in water. The non-aqueous cleaning agents used in precision industrial cleaning are mainly organic solvents such as hydrocarbons (petroleum), chlorinated hydrocarbons, fluorinated hydrocarbons, brominated hydrocarbons, alcohols, silicone oils, and terpenes.

The main indicators for measuring solvents are KB value (shell pin butanol value), AP (aniline point), SP dissolution parameter), surface tension, density, viscosity, boiling point, flash point, exposure concentration and other parameters. The KB value is very high, that is, the solvent with strong dissolving power is not necessarily a good cleaning agent. A good precision industrial cleaning agent must have the following conditions:

① Stable chemical properties, not easy to react with the objects to be cleaned;

② The surface tension and viscosity are small and the penetration is strong;

③ The boiling point is low, and it can be dried by itself;

④ No flash point, non-flammable;

⑤ The KB value should not be too high to avoid being miscible with the material being washed;

⑥ Low toxicity, safe to use;

⑦ Non-ODS and low GWP (Global Warming Potential), environmental protection.

If Article 7 above is not considered. The best cleaning agents are CFC and TCA. They have good chemical stability and can be stored for a long time without deterioration; they have no effect on most metals, plastics and paints, no dissolution will occur, no flash point, low toxicity, and safe use; small surface tension and strong penetration, The cleaning ability is strong; the boiling point is low, the evaporation speed is fast, the cleaned workpiece can be dried by itself, and generally does not need to be dried, so it is widely used in various industrial cleaning. The disadvantage is that it destroys the ozone layer and is being gradually banned. China's CFC cleaners are now only Changshu 3F.

Although various countries around the world have developed a variety of alternatives, no alternative cleaning agent comparable to CFC has been found in the world. They all have such problems. The main alternative products in use are:

Stilbene

Hydrocarbon solvents containing only two elements, carbon and hydrogen, are also known in Japan as carbohydrates or hydrocarbon solvents. According to its molecular structure, products with various properties have been developed, which are widely used in Japan. The advantages of this type of cleaning agent are: non-ODS, strong cleaning power for oil stains. Good permeability. Tasteless or slightly odorous, low toxicity. Effluent disposal is easy. Recyclable and cheap; the disadvantage is that it has certain flammability and explosiveness, slow drying, high requirements for cleaning equipment, and large one-time investment. It is ideal to use a vacuum cleaning method to reduce its surface tension and improve its cleaning ability, and then use vacuum drying. The equipment is expensive, the operation is complicated, and the efficiency is relatively low.

⑵Chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents

The chlorinated hydrocarbon cleaning agents used are mainly trichloroethylene, dichloromethane and tetrachloroethylene. This type of solvent is widely used in the field of cleaning, and mainly has the following advantages and characteristics:

Very low ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential. Almost no damage to the ozone layer; non-combustible under normal conditions. No danger of fire or explosion (methylene chloride may explode under prolonged intense light); for metal processing Oil. Grease and other oil stains have a large dissolving power. It can also swell or dissolve plastics and rubbers: its viscosity and surface tension are small, its penetrating power is strong, it can penetrate small gaps, completely dissolve and remove attached dirt; low boiling point, evaporation heat Small, suitable for steam cleaning, can be dried by itself after washing; waste liquid can be separated by distillation and recycled; can use the same or similar cleaning processes and equipment as CFC and TCA, simple operation, high efficiency, low operating cost; disadvantage is toxicity Higher, generally the content in the air is limited to 50PPM; some labor protection regulations have explicit restrictions on its use; some European countries restrict the import and use of such chlorine-containing cleaning products.

⑶ Brominated hydrocarbon solvents

recent years. In the United States, Japan has introduced bromine-based cleaning agents. And in the electronics industry, aviation industry. The automotive industry and home appliances are widely used. It is reported. Boeing aircraft components are selected for this type of cleaning agent. The main component of bromine-based cleaning agents is high-purity n-bromopropane (NPB). Its performance is comparable to CFC-113 and TCA. The main technical parameters are almost exactly the same as TCA, with better wetting coefficient and stronger cleaning ability for metal parts. There is no flash point, which can be recycled and reused, and the running cost is very low. Instead of CFC and TCA, the process is completely the same, and almost no equipment replacement is required. It only needs to adjust the steaming temperature, which is also called "the alternative cleaning agent of the third world". The bromine-based cleaning agent has an ODP of 0.006, has a lifetime of 11 days in the atmosphere, and has almost no GWP value. There is still controversy about toxicity. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has organized experiments for more than 5 years. The experimental results are quite different from the theoretical analysis. The US Environmental Protection Agency explicitly accepted NPB as a solvent for cleaning, aerosols, and adhesives in a policy issued on March 27, 2002. However, since there is no exact data on its toxicity, the exposure concentration in the air should be controlled during use.

<; Experimental and research on alternative cleaning agents for the LCD industry) undertaken by the China LCD Association and the Tsinghua University LCD Engineering Technology Center. According to the work plan, the LCD Center conducted a cleaning effect test and analysis of various potential alternative cleaning agents. According to the experimental results, it was found that the HEP-2 cleaning agent (the main component is NPB) was ideal, and a phase report was submitted in April 2001, and a preliminary equipment modification plan was proposed. On this basis, the LCD center follows the process characteristics of HEP-2. Designed a customized cleaning equipment. A batch cleaning test of the LCD panel by HEP-2 was performed. Multiple tests such as the reliability of the cleaned LCD screen were performed to verify once again the impact of HEP-2 on the cleaning effect and reliability of the LCD screen. And determine the final batch cleaning alternative process plan and final report.

The end result proved. The selected HEP-2 cleaning agent, combined with the self-designed automatic cleaning equipment, can completely achieve the cleaning effect of the original CFC. And the use of HEP-2 cleaning agent is more efficient than CFC cleaning. Reduced single process from 15 minutes to 5 minutes; redesigned dual condensation zone. Fully sealed fully automatic washing machine, except for loading and unloading. The equipment automatically completes the cleaning of each process. The equipment process parameters are close to the original equipment, which is convenient to replace; and the production efficiency. Product consistency has been greatly improved; the working environment of workers has been completely improved, without direct contact with chemical solvents, and possible chemical poisoning has been avoided. The labor intensity is reduced; at the same time, the cleaning agent is basically condensed and recovered, and the consumption is greatly reduced, which can greatly reduce the use cost.

At the same time, in the field of compressors and electric vacuum, replacement experiments have also been completed, especially through the compatibility experiments of compressor refrigerants and lubricating oils, which have started to be used in batches in the compressor industry. The experiments organized by the Electric Vacuum Industry Association have also been completed, and the results can fully meet the requirements. The final report is being completed.

The production of the HEP-2 project in China has been officially approved by the United Nations Multilateral Fund. The State Environmental Protection Administration is organizing relevant units to implement the project in the international compliance environmental protection industrial park. At that time, HEP-2 will become the main substitute for Chinese ODS cleaning agents.

⑷Organic fluoride (HCFC, HFO, HFE, PFC)

The fluorine-based cleaning agents that replace CFC-11 3 mainly include HCFC (hydrofluorocarbons), HFC (hydrofluorocarbons), HFE (hydrofluoroether), PFC (perfluorocarbon), and so on. Among them, HFC, HFE, and PFC do not have cleaning power. They can only be used in combination with other compounds. This type of cleaning agent has cleaning performance close to CFC-113 and is stable. Low toxicity. Non-combustible. Safe and reliable, but usually expensive. HCFC has a certain impact on the ozone layer. HCFC-141B and HCFC-225 are widely used. It is a transitional alternative and will eventually be banned; HFC and HFE cleaning agents are too stable. Lifespan in the atmosphere can be thousands or even tens of thousands of years. It is a very powerful greenhouse gas. After the Kyoto Protocol has entered into force, its use may also be restricted.

⑸Natural Organic Matter (Plant)

There are many types of hydrocarbon organic compounds extracted from plants. The most commonly used are turpentine and lemon oil. Turpentine is a relatively representative plant-based hydrocarbon solvent. It is found in natural turpentine. When turpentine is distilled, the distillate is turpentine and the solid residue is rosin. The main component is hepinene, which has a solubility between petroleum ether and benzene. The boiling point and ignition point are higher, and the safety is better.

Lemon oil is made from citrus. grapefruit. A hydrocarbon solvent obtained by distillation from lemon fruit peel. The main chemical component is a monocyclic terpene called pinene (methacryl cyclohexene), which has a complex composition. The boiling point is 1 75.5-1 76 ° C. Its physical properties are similar to turpentine, and it has a citrus (lemon) fruit aroma. Lemon oil itself is insoluble in water. After adding the active agent, it can be mixed with water in any proportion. Its ability to remove oil and decontamination is very strong. It is widely used in the United States. Including machining. Vehicle maintenance degreasing cleaning, bowling lane cleaning, oil tank cleaning. Electronic parts cleaning, etc. In particular, it comes from fruits and is recognized by the FDA as a food additive. No need to worry about residues, and it has been proven to have a bactericidal effect, and is applied to food processing machinery. Dishware cleaning. Beer can cleaning and other areas directly related to diet, also have good application prospects in the civilian and household cleaning fields.

Citrus oil has a strong compatibility with oils and fats, which can be separated by filtering through cotton yarn. reuse. Waste liquid can be biodegraded without causing pollution and low environmental protection cost. The disadvantage is that the ability to remove oil and dissolve is too strong. Direct contact with the skin will cause the skin to degrease and dry; you cannot directly clean painted objects and many kinds of plastics and rubbers, which will easily cause paint to fall off and dissolve. Japan has used this type of solvent to melt disposable tableware boxes and packaging foam plastics, that is, white garbage, which has a strong dissolving power.

Relevant units in China have begun research and application of plant-based cleaning agents. Since 1998, domestic companies have introduced citrus oil cleaning agents and related cleaning technologies from the United States, and have developed and produced supporting professional cleaning equipment. It has been promoted and applied in fields such as machining. Product SQ-25 / A Electrical Equipment Cleaner Product Features 1. Strong cleaning ability, rapid penetration, and safe dissolution and stripping of grease and oily dirt. With the help of special tools, it can be cleaned even out of reach. 2. It can be cleaned with power and withstand voltage of 25KV. 3. It has a fast volatilization speed and leaves no residue after drying. 4, easy to use, the equipment can be cleaned without complete disassembly, saving maintenance costs. 5. It is safe and reliable, and there is no ignition danger like gasoline and ene. It is safe and harmless to metal, paint finish, insulation cover, oil-resistant rubber and plastic. Technical index Model / Product name SQ-25 / Cleaning agent for electrical equipment Appearance colorless transparent liquid Odor Microsolvent Odor Specific gravity 0.95 ± 0.02PH value 6 ~ 7 Flash point 70 ℃ ± 1 ℃ Ignition point 80 ℃ ± 1 ℃ Cleaning rate ≥99.7% Withstand voltage ≥25KV, execute standard Q / OSQ packaging, 20 kg / barrel, 200 kg / barrel Cleaning and cleaning. It is especially effective for cleaning the stator, rotor and power distribution cabinet, head cabinet, terminal block and main control room of the motor. Use method: spray cleaning method and immersion cleaning method; SQ-30 electric porcelain bottle cleaning agent product performance This product is made of a variety of surfactants, composite acids, emulsifying penetrants, dust removal, oil removal additives, refined through a unique formula , Special cleaning agent for electric porcelain bottles that meet environmental protection requirements. Product Features 1. Strong: It has the function of penetrating, dissolving and peeling off dirt. 2. Safe to use: Does not affect the gloss and brightness of the cleaned object. Technical index Model / Product name SQ-30 / Electric porcelain bottle cleaning agent Color light red liquid Specific gravity 1.05 ~ 1.15PH value 1 ~ 2 Cleaning rate ≥98% Implementation of standard Q / OSQ Scope of application This product is widely used in power output systems, substations, Cleaning of various types of electric porcelain bottles used in power distribution rooms, output power plants and power plants, power stations, mines, factories, arresters, and railway electrification systems. Use method 1. Spray method: Spray SQ-30 on the dirt, and wipe it with a cloth after 2 ~ 3 minutes. Rinse with water after cleaning. 2. Dipping method: dip the electric porcelain bottle with serious stains into the SQ-30 stock solution, take out the dirt and rinse it with water after the dirt is dissolved. Precautions If you accidentally get into your eyes or other parts of your body, wash them off with water immediately. Wear protective gloves when using; SQ-35 Precision Electronic Instrument Cleaner This product is a non-flammable, highly volatile liquid cleaner. Widely used for cleaning and maintenance of various instruments, printed circuit boards, program-controlled switches, electronic computers, printers, magnetic heads, and drums Product Features 1: It can quickly remove dust, oil, moisture and other dirt, and it is completely volatile without leaving any residue. 2. Safety: No corrosion to various metals, rubber, plastics, paints and electronic components. Withstand voltage 35KV, good insulation performance, can be cleaned with electricity. 3. Convenient: easy to use, aerosol can packaging, hand spray can be sprayed. It can be cleaned when the equipment is running or stopped. 4, environmental protection: does not contain controlled substances and harmful substances such as trichloroethylene. Technical index Model / Product name SQ-35 / Precise electronic instrument cleaning agent Appearance colorless liquid odor No odor Specific gravity 0.9 ± 0.01PH value 7 Ignition point, flash ignition point ≥92 Flash point ≥86 Withstand voltage ≥35KV Standard Q / OSQ applicable Scope for various instruments, printed circuit boards, program-controlled switches, precision electronic instruments, printed circuit boards, mobile communications, microwave radio paging, electronic computers, printers and magnetic heads, magnetic drums, automated control systems and other instruments Cleaning. How to use: Shake the tank for a while, spray the nozzle 15-20cm away from the cleaning object, or connect the extension tube to spray and wash all parts. After the oil is completely removed, it can be evaporated and dried naturally. Board cleaning is very effective in removing dust with the help of a brush. When the cleaning process is large, a special spray gun can be used for cleaning. Precautions 1. The ambient humidity is high. It is not recommended to clean the device when it is wet. 2. When used in large quantities, the construction site should be well ventilated, away from fire source system cleaners, closed-circuit water corrosion inhibitors, central air conditioning operation cleaners, precision equipment cleaners, precision instrument cleaners, central air conditioning system cleaners, and air conditioning fins. 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