[ Plastic Machinery Network Hot Spotlight
] Since the beginning of this year, the hot spot of the environmental protection industry has focused on the field of solid waste.
In terms of benefits, China's wet waste accounts for a relatively high proportion of domestic waste, making the overall moisture content of domestic waste high. Waste classification can effectively reduce the overall moisture content of domestic waste, increase the calorific value of waste incineration, and thereby increase the unit power generation.
In terms of disadvantages, "wet and dry separation" is one of the key links required by the waste classification policy. Waste classification will inevitably reduce the amount of waste entering the waste incineration power plant.
At present, there is a huge gap in the treatment of kitchen waste in China (according to a non-statistical treatment rate of only about 10%). The effective disposal and utilization of kitchen waste has the potential to become a new investment growth point.
Recycling of resources is the direction
The capacity of the renewable resources market will increase along with the refinement of solid waste treatment. Garbage classification will help to make the recycling channels gradually formal, and there is a lot of room for improvement in the standardization of the industry.
From the perspective of the current collection and transportation of solid waste, waste collection is accompanied by separate collection, transportation, and treatment, which will weaken the existing sanitation system's connection with landfills and waste incineration power plants.
The above has discussed the impact of waste classification on the major sub-sectors of solid waste from a market perspective. Then, from a government perspective, how is the economics of waste classification?
As the starting point of classified collection, classified transportation, and classified processing, promoting garbage classification will promote the diversified development of each end of the industrial chain such as the renewable resource industry, solid waste processing industry, and sanitation industry.
Garbage classification is expected to revolutionize the traditional garbage collection and disposal system. Since it is an innovation, it must have an impact on the existing system. In addition, waste classification can sort out reaction catalysts such as heavy metals from the source, which can effectively control the generation and discharge of dioxins during the waste incineration process.
The huge market is not readily available. The impact of waste classification on the solid waste industry remains to be seen. It is relatively certain that the solid waste industry needs to accumulate a small amount of money. Enterprise integration of the industry and business collaboration are the key points to become stronger. The main path for the development of solid waste giants is to go from single to composite, from specialized to comprehensive.
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With the increase in scale, unit investment costs will continue to decline. Assuming that the investment in food waste treatment units will fall to about 500,000 yuan in the future, the market space for food waste treatment can reach 205 billion yuan.
Although the potential market is huge, whether the kitchen waste disposal system can be promoted smoothly across the country depends on whether it can solve the three problems of financial burden, supporting facilities construction and continuous supervision.
Food waste is a potential investment growth point
In January, the State Council issued the "Work Plan for Pilot Construction of" Waste-Free Cities ", exploring the establishment of a comprehensive management system and technical system for the construction of" Waste-free Cities, "and proposing new ideas for urban development in the new era. In June, the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Environmental Pollution by Solid Wastes (Revised Draft) was reviewed and approved. Since July 1, Shanghai has become a compulsory garbage classification city in China.
In the short term, 46 pilot cities of garbage classification will take the lead in releasing market demand. Based on the investment of 700,000 yuan in kitchen waste treatment facilities, the investment in construction of new kitchen waste treatment projects in 46 pilot cities of garbage classification is 137.13 billion yuan. Calculated based on the collection and transportation of 150 yuan / ton discount fee and the disposal price of 220 yuan / ton, the new kitchen waste collection and transportation market capacity is 10.72 billion yuan / year, and the project operating space is 15.73 billion yuan / year.
In the long run, the volume of domestic garbage removal in cities and counties in China is about 283 million tons / year, and it is expected to stabilize at about 300 million tons / year in the future. Assuming that kitchen waste accounts for 50% of domestic waste, China's kitchen waste The daily output is 410,000 tons.
According to calculations, the recycling rate of wet waste in 16.36% of domestic waste is the threshold of the reduction rate brought by waste classification; when the ratio is further increased, the waste incineration power generation capacity will show a linear decline trend; when the wet waste is fully recycled At the same time, the reduction rate of waste incineration will reach 35.8%.
So, can the increase in heating value brought by waste classification have a negative impact on the amount of impulse reduction? Based on the waste incineration power generation project with a design capacity of 1,000 tons / day, waste classification will have an impact on the project's operating income first and then decrease.
When the wet garbage recycling rate in domestic garbage is 29.14%, the project's operating income will increase negatively; when the wet garbage is fully recycled, the project's operating revenue will decrease by 19.5%. Under bad conditions, the project's operating income fell by 31%.
Take the United States as an example. In the past, the waste treatment in the United States was mainly landfill. After the classification was implemented in each state, the amount of waste entering the landfill site decreased by 79% from 1988 to 2002. The waste diversion rate in each state and city was generally around 50%. Recycling projects have become the main flow of garbage.
Although the widespread promotion of garbage classification is beneficial to the recycling of resources, the integration of the two networks requires overall consideration of the system construction of points, stations, and yards, and the transition from solid waste to resource utilization requires the removal of the vested interests that are solidified. This will be a long-term process.
Detailed to almost "harsh" Japanese waste sorting
Dr. Tan Yuzhi, who had studied abroad at Waseda University in Japan, was deeply impressed by the waste classification in Japan. In his words, it is "the rules are so bullish and almost harsh on the residents."
Japan's garbage classification is very fine. In addition to the general domestic garbage is divided into combustible and non-combustible garbage, resource-based garbage is also specifically divided into clean plastic, paper, old 彩乐乐网papers and magazines, old clothes, plastic beverage bottles, canned beverage bottles, Glass drink bottles and more.
In addition, when changing TVs, refrigerators and washing machines, you must contact a specialized electrical shop or purchaser, and pay a certain processing fee. You can only throw 4 large pieces of trash a year.
What seems so troublesome, the Japanese are happy. After drinking a bottle of cola, they would wash the beverage bottle, remove the outer plastic packaging, and throw it into a recyclable plastic garbage bag. Bottle caps are non-combustible garbage, and the bottles themselves are placed in special plastic bottle
This result is inseparable from the Japanese government's effective environmental control and publicity.
In Japan, if citizens litter in violation of regulations, they violate the "Disposal Disposal Law" and will be arrested by police c and fined 30,000 to 50,000 yen. However, the release of garbage sorting has become a conscious behavior of the Japanese people. If you do not strictly implement garbage sorting, you will face huge fines. In the regional society based on residential complexes, a “non-performing garbage sorting” will be left Reputation, that's shameful. So everyone will strictly implement it even if no one is supervising it.
Japan's garbage separation is taught by mothers. Learned from birth. There are also some who have learned that they are not correct. For example, a cigarette case, a carton in between, an outer plastic film
, and a circle of aluminum foil at the seal. This cigarette box is divided into three categories: the outer packaging is plastic, the box is paper, and the aluminum foil is metal.
Even more troublesome is throwing garbage.
In Japan, two timetables are posted on the wall of each household, one is a tram timetable and the other is a garbage collection schedule. Seven days a week, the types of garbage collected vary from day to day. Residents need to dump garbage to the designated place before 8 am on the day of garbage removal, and must not miss the time, otherwise they have to wait next week.
After the sorted garbage is recycled by someone, it will be recycled for environmental protection. Free public toilets in Japan all provide free toilet paper. On these toilet papers, a small line is also printed: These toilet papers are made from recycled tickets.
The Japanese's disposal of supermarket waste is also worth learning. Take the white lunch box as an example. When people buy a white lunch box in the supermarket and go home, they will not throw it away. Instead, they will return the lunch box to the supermarket, and the supermarket will return the lunch box to the manufacturer. Reuse.
At present, Japan has a total of 40 factories producing lunch boxes, of which 8 factories both produce and recycle lunch boxes. The production volume of these 8 companies accounted for 90% of Japan's total lunch box production.